Massive retaliation was the parade example (though the phrase itself was not used by the administration it was invented by others to describe the policy) a credible threat to use a massive nuclear arsenal “at times and places of our choosing” expressed a fantasy of perfect centralized control. Devised primarily by secretary of state john foster dulles, this so-called new look at foreign policy proposed the use of nuclear weapons and new technology rather than ground troops and conventional bombs, all in an effort to threaten “massive retaliation” against the ussr for communist advances abroad. Before the development of the us nuclear triad, the threat of massive retaliation was hard to make credible, and was inflexible in response to foreign policy issues, as everyday challenges of foreign policy could not have been dealt with using a massive nuclear strike in fact, the soviet union took many minor military actions that would have . The bombers of us strategic air command would simply destroy the soviet union with nuclear weapons 12 doctrine of massive retaliation • this policy was most credible from 1945-49, but still remained us policy well into the 1950s, with vestiges still present as late as during the 1962 cuban missile crisis.
Criticism of the nuclear doctrine has mainly been centered on a few key issues: nfu may result in unacceptably high initial casualties and damage to indian population, cities, and infrastructure “massive” retaliation is not credible, especially against a tactical nuclear strike on indian forces on the adversary’s own territory nuclear . Massive retaliation's wiki: massive retaliation, also known as a massive response or massive deterrence, is a military doctrine and nuclear strategy in which a state commits itself to retaliate in much greater force in the event of an attackstrategyin the event of an attack from an. Although weakened by the early cold war and its chilling effects on criticism of us military policy, pacifist groups drew on their limited resources for sharp, repeated attacks on the bomb.
The new look defense policy of the eisenhower administration of the 1950's was to threaten massive retaliation with nuclear weapons in response to any act of aggression by a potential enemy modernization theory. The kennedy advisers had also been highly critical of the policy of reliance on massive retaliation and determined to make the united states capable of flexible response by expanding conventional armed forces. Our international security undertakings must not be allowed to read as committing us to protect 40-plus foreign governments against any and all of the threats that face them and them alone. Osama bin laden's purpose for the 9/11 attack was (and is) to provoke massive retaliation from the us against islam he hoped that our retaliation would finally unite islam against the us as a common enemy, and that his vision for a fundamentalist pan-islamic state would sweep away all the more moderate governments in the region, as well as movements toward a pluralistic culture. Apush american pageant chapter 37 flashcards primary tabs view massive retaliation policy of the us that it would defend the middle east against attack by .
For the rest of the cold war, it remained us policy to initiate the first-use of tactical nuclear weapons to oppose any conventional soviet invasion of europe. Against an attack originating from north korea or iran, whether intentional or not, there would be little for the united states to lose were it to retaliate since the result of the retaliation would likely be regime change, it would be effective in removing the nuclear threat. Kissinger: well, our current military policy is based on the doctrine of massive retaliation: that we threaten an all-out attack on the soviet union in case the soviet union engages in aggression anywhere.
Foreign relations of the united states and massive retaliation, and complacent of kennedy’s foreign policy did not quite live up to the stirring rhetoric . Us strategic nuclear policy us department of state ^massive retaliation was not seen by eisenhower as the panacea for all forms of military conflict . Source of criticism of truman’s containment policy b ut it also draws on the way a large number of americans believed that massive retaliation was a more “natural” representation of american.
In china there was strong criticism of the new us policy which increases us targeting of china a chinese foreign ministry spokesman stated, “now that the cold war is already over, the international situation has eased a lot. The united states secretary of state between the years 1953 and 1959, john foster dulles is remembered as a preeminent shaper of american foreign policy in the postwar era taking an .
The official nuclear policy of the united states was one of “massive retaliation”, as coined by president dwight d eisenhower’s secretary of state john foster dulles, which called for massive attack against the soviet union if they were to invade europe, regardless of whether it was a conventional or a nuclear attack. It’s easy to feel disempowered in the face of such chaotic and consequential decisions, but the history of nuclear weapons since 1945 is one of extensive and frequent interventions by organized people in the united states and other countries to stop nuclear weapons deployments and nuclear war itself. Eisenhower and the cold war: 1954–1960 new look foreign policy, which emphasized massive retaliation with rights also drew international criticism and . In comparison to the united states' post-9/11 policies, the lack of retaliation by india against attacks of similar nature that are construed as acts of war has left a legacy that makes its intention of massive retaliation unbelievable.